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Is Web Scraping Legal? Laws and Ethics

    Is Web Scraping Illegal in Other Countries

    Web scraping, also known as web data extraction or web harvesting, refers to the automated process of extracting data from websites. With the rise of big data, web scraping has become an increasingly popular technique for gathering large amounts of online data for market research, content generation, data journalism, and more.

    However, the legality and ethics of web scraping are complex and nuanced. While many view web scraping as a gray area, others argue it violates laws and webmasters’ terms of service. This article examines is web scraping legal and how to use it safely.

    What Is Web Scraping?

    Web scraping typically involves writing a software program or script to extract data from websites in bulk rapidly. The scraped data may include text, documents, images, and other website content.

    Some common uses of scraped data include:

    • Price comparison: Scraping product prices from e-commerce sites to monitor pricing trends.
    • Market research: Harvesting data like customer reviews, product descriptions, real estate listings, etc., to conduct competitive analysis.
    • Lead generation: Scraping contact information for sales leads.
    • News Monitoring: Tracking headlines and article text from news sites.
    • Content generation: Scraping data to auto-generate content for websites.
    • Research: Gather data for academic studies in machine learning and search engine optimization.

    Several web scraping methods include using APIs, parsing HTML manually, and automating browsers. Scraping tools and programming languages like Python and R make it relatively simple to build scrapers for many purposes.

    Is Web Scraping Legal

    The short answer is yes—web scraping in the United States is generally legal when done properly. There are no explicit federal laws that ban web scraping on its own. In most cases, scraping public websites in small volumes for research purposes is legally allowed, as long as it does not break the target site’s Terms of Service agreement or violate other regulations like privacy and copyright laws.

    However, improperly scraping private user data protected by privacy laws or excessively scraping copyrighted materials without permission could be against the law. Additionally, some websites use technical measures like CAPTCHAs or IP blocking to prevent scraping even when it is legal, so scrapers must find workarounds for these barriers.

    But in general, responsibly scraping modest amounts of public data from compliant websites typically does not violate any current U.S. laws, as long as proper attribution is given. Those engaging in web scraping should still try to scrape ethically, stay updated on evolving laws in this gray area, and respect the expressed preferences of website owners.

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    There are some important laws and guidelines to follow:
    • No federal law explicitly prohibits web scraping of publicly available data. However, the legality depends on how the scraping is conducted.
    • The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in the HiQ v. LinkedIn case ruled that scraping publicly available data from websites is protected by the First Amendment and cannot be blocked using laws like the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) or the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). This set an important precedent affirming the legality of scraping public data.
    • For the data to be legally scraped, it must be publicly available and not require any authentication or access behind a login. Scraping data that belongs to the user and requires login access, like your Amazon order history, is generally permitted.
    • The scraped content should not be protected by copyright. If the data is copyrighted material, permission from the copyright holder is required before scraping.
    • The scraping process should not cause any harm or damage to the website, such as overloading servers or incurring significant bandwidth costs. If damages can be proven, the website owner may be able to sue the scraper.
    • While not legally binding, many websites include terms of service (ToS) that prohibit scraping. However, unless the user explicitly agrees to the ToS through a clickwrap agreement, violating the ToS alone may not be illegal, as per the HiQ v. LinkedIn case.
    • Other laws like the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA), the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), and the DMCA can potentially be used to prosecute web scraping in certain cases, such as intercepting communications, scraping personal data at scale, or circumventing security measures.

    So, while no federal law explicitly prohibits web scraping of public data in the US, scrapers must ensure they follow all applicable laws and guidelines related to access, copyright, damages, and personal data to remain compliant. The HiQ v. LinkedIn case affirmed the legality of scraping public data under the First Amendment.

    Is Web Scraping Legal in the United States

    Web Scraping Court Cases and Precedent

    There have been several notable court cases that help define the legality of web scraping:

    Ticketmaster vs. RMG Technologies (2017)

    Ticketmaster sued scraper RMG for harvesting its event data, alleging CFAA and copyright violations. The case settled with RMG agreeing to pay damages and stop scraping Ticketmaster. This exemplifies how a site’s ToS binds users against scraping.

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    hiQ Labs vs. LinkedIn (2017)

    LinkedIn sent hiQ a cease-and-desist order to stop scraping its member data. HiQ filed for declaratory judgment arguing scraping public data did not violate CFAA. LinkedIn lost on appeals, establishing web scrapers have leeway under CFAA.

    Sandvig vs. Sessions (2018)

    Researchers challenged the CFAA, arguing it unconstitutionally criminalizes even harmless research scraping. The Supreme Court declined to hear the case. But it demonstrates scraped for research may qualify as fair use.

    Microsoft vs. Liongard (2020)

    Microsoft sued Liongard for scraping product data from its site despite prohibitions in its ToS and bots.txt files. Liongard settled and stopped scraping Microsoft. This shows that properly configuring sites with bots.txt can deter scrapers.

    These and other cases shape guidelines for lawful scraping under ToS and CFAA. While sites can often enforce anti-scraping contracts, harmless public data scraping likely avoids CFAA violations.

    Is Web Scraping Illegal in Other Countries?

    Web Scraping Court Cases and Precedent

    Laws surrounding web scraping vary significantly across the world:

    • European Union: The EU has strict data protection laws under the GDPR. Scraping personal data without consent is illegal. However, copyright laws are more flexible regarding text/data scraping for research.
    • Canada: Canadian copyright law allows scraping for research/private purposes. Personal information laws restrict the scraping of private data. Sites’ ToS are still enforceable contracts.
    • China: China has lax enforcement and infringement of copyright laws and ToS agreements related to scraping. Individual privacy is also less protected.
    • Australia: Scraping public information without consent is generally allowed under fair use. However, Australia’s strict anti-hacking laws may prohibit access to “restricted” systems.
    • India: There are no explicit laws banning public data scraping in the country. Indian courts have ruled that scraping does not infringe copyright.

    So, laws vary, but scraping non-copyrighted public data in moderation is often legal internationally. However, violating sites’ ToS bans can still elicit lawsuits in many countries.

    Web Scraping Ethics

    Regardless of legality, there are some ethical questions to consider before web scraping:

    • Does scraping comply with the website’s preferences and hurt the site?
    • Does it violate user privacy or rights when scraping personal data?
    • Does scrape data provide value and benefit society rather than just private profit?
    • Is the scale and frequency of scraping excessive compared to intended use?
    • Are proper attribution and citations provided when publishing scraped content?
    • Does the scraping method employ deception or misrepresentation?

    Scraping data secretly at massive scales without permission raises ethical alarms for some data scientists and legal experts. They argue that it amounts to “theft” of proprietary information that these sites invest in producing.

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    However, others counter that data on public websites is intentionally exposed and fair game to harvest—especially for academic study or journalism providing public value.

    Ultimately, the ethics depend on the scraper’s methods, scale, and motivations, balancing public benefit versus potential harm to the website. Small-scale research scraping with attribution is generally more justifiable than maximally profit-driven scraping without regard for impact.

    Best Practices for Legal, Ethical Web Scraping

    When scraping the web, following certain best practices can help avoid legal troubles and scrape more ethically:

    • Review robots.txt: The robots exclusion standard lets sites communicate scraping preferences. Avoid scraping pages blocked in robots.txt.
    • Check the site’s terms: Understand if the ToSpermits are being scraped. If not, consider another data source or seeking permission.
    • Limit scope: Only scrape data needed for the intended use case. Minimize retrieval of copyrighted/private information.
    • Use APIs when available: Many sites offer APIs allowing limited scraping rather than brute-force crawling pages.
    • Make attribution: When publishing scraped data, cite sources appropriately, giving credit.
    • Scrape ethically: Avoid deception and scraping data you do not have a legitimate use for.
    • Use data responsibly: Do not violate privacy, copyright, or discrimination laws when analyzing scraped data.
    • Consider alternatives: If excessive scraping is needed, partner with website owners to access their data.
    • Check other applicable laws: Be aware of copyright, data protection, CFAA, and other laws that may apply.

    With some due diligence, web scrapers can stay on the right side of the law and scrape ethically. However, it is a continually evolving legal landscape to monitor.


    In summary, whether web scraping is legal depends heavily on how it is implemented:

    • Scraping modest amounts of public data for research generally avoids legal issues if it adheres to the sites’ terms and applicable laws.
    • Scraping private user data or copyrighted content without permission raises more serious legal concerns.
    • Scraping too aggressively without regard for a website’s preferences may violate contracts under terms of service.

    There are still many gray areas and unclear precedents around web scraping laws. While permitted in certain cases, excessive automated scraping without permission exists in an ethical and legal gray zone opposed by many websites.

    Until more definitive laws emerge, following best practices around attribution, data usage, honoring ToS, and scraping ethically and transparently can help keep web harvesting within legal bounds. However, due to the complex patchwork of regulations, legal guidance is still advisable for larger-scale scraping projects.